Guillain-Barré Syndrome - Definition, Etiology and Classification

Guillain-Barre syndrome is a cause of paralysis is fairly common in young adults. Guillain-Barre syndrome is often caused concerns for patients and their families because it occurs in the productive age, especially in some circumstances can cause death, although it generally has a good prognosis.

Some names are called by some experts for this disease, namely idiopathic polyneuritis, acute febrile polyneuritis, acute infectious polyneuritis, acute postinfectious polyneuritis, Acute inflammatory demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy, Landry's ascending paralysis and Landry-Guillain-Barré Syndrome.


Definition

Guillain-Barre syndrome or acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is an acute inflammation that causes nerve cell damage without an obvious cause. This syndrome was found in 1916 by Georges Guillain, Jean-Alexandre Barré and Strohl André. They discovered the syndrome in two soldiers who suffered from abnormality increased production of cerebrospinal fluid protein. Diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome can be done by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid and electrodiagnostic. Indications of infection is the increase in white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. Whereas when using electrodiagnostic, can through conduction studies nerve cells. (Nugrahanti, 2010)

Parry said that, Guillain-Barre syndrome is a polyneuropathy that is ascending and acute that often occurs after 1 to 3 weeks after acute infection. According to Bosch, Guillain-Barre syndrome is a clinical syndrome characterized by flaccid paralysis that occurs acutely associated with the autoimmune process in which the target is peripheral nerves, nerve roots and cranial nerves.


Etiology

Guillain-Barre syndrome is still not known with certainty the cause and is still a matter of debate. Some state / illness that precedes and may be an association with the occurrence of Guillain-Barre syndrome, among others:
  • Infection
  • Vaccination
  • Surgery
  • Systemic disease: malignancy, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroiditis, Addison's disease
  • Pregnancy or during childbirth

Guillain-Barre syndrome is often associated with acute non-specific infections. The incidence of cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with these infections approximately between 56% - 80%, which is 1 to 4 weeks before neurological symptoms arise, such as upper respiratory infections or gastrointestinal infections.

Previously the syndrome is thought to be caused by a viral infection, but recently revealed that in fact the virus is not the cause. Scientists have theorized today is an abnormality Immunobiology, either primary immune response and immune-mediated process.

In general, this syndrome is often preceded by influenza infection or upper respiratory tract or gastrointestinal tract. The cause of viral infections in general, of the herpes group. This syndrome can also be preceded by vaccination, bacterial infections, endocrine disorders, surgery, anesthesia, and so on.


Classification

Some variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome can be classified as follows:
  • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Subacute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Acute of motor axonal neuropathy
  • Acute of motor and sensory axonal neuropathy
  • Fisher's syndrome
  • Acute pandysautonomia

Risk for Infection - Nursing Assessment and Nursing Diagnosis


Infection is an invasion of the body by pathogens or microorganisms capable of causing illness (Potter and Perry, 2005).

Some of the factors that trigger the risk of infection in patients by Potter and Perry (2005) are:

1) Agent
The agent causing the infection, the microorganism can enter because the agent itself or because the toxins are released.

2) Host
The hosts were infected, so even if there is an agent, if no one can be charged, there is no infection. Hosts are usually people or animals in accordance with the needs of the agent to survive or breed.

3) Environment
Environment, the environment around the agent and the host, such as temperature, humidity, sunlight, oxygen and so on. There are certain agents that can only survive or infect certain environmental conditions as well.


Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms are common in infections (Smeltzer, 2002) as follows:



1. Rubor
Rubor or redness is first seen in areas that become inflamed. When inflammatory reactions arise, dilation of the arterioles that supply blood to areas of inflammation. So that more blood flows to local microcirculation and capillary stretch quickly filled with blood. This condition is called hyperemia or congestion, causing local red color because of acute inflammation.

2. Calor
Calor occur simultaneously with redness of acute inflammatory reactions. Calor is also caused by increased blood circulation. Because blood has a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius is channeled to the body surface inflamed to the area more than normal.

3. Dolor
Changes in local pH or local concentration of certain ions can stimulate nerve endings. Spending substances such as histamine or other bioactive can stimulate nerves. The pain is caused also by the pressure was rising due to swelling of inflamed tissue.

4. Tumor
Swelling partly due to hyperemia and mostly caused by the delivery of fluid and cells from the blood circulation into the interstitial tissues.

5. Functio Laesa
Functio laesa is a loss of function or a disturbance of function.


Diagnostic

Laboratory tests are directly related to the infection include a complete blood count that includes: hemoglobin, leukocytes, hematocrit, erythrocytes, platelets, MCH, MCHV, basophils, eosinophils, stem segments, lymphocytes, and monocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), random blood glucose, and albumin.


Medical Management

1. Aseptic
Actions taken in health care. This term is used to describe all the work done to prevent the entry of microorganisms into the body that are likely to lead to infection. The end goal is to reduce or eliminate the number of microorganisms, both on the surface of animate objects and inanimate objects so that medical equipment can be safely used.

2. Antiseptic
Efforts to prevent infection by killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the skin and other body tissues.

3. Decontamination
Actions taken so that an inanimate object can be handled safely by health workers, particularly medical clearance officer before washing done. An example is the examination table, medical equipment and gloves contaminated with blood or body fluids when actions are performed.

4. Washing
The removal of all blood, body fluids, or any foreign objects such as dust and dirt.

5. Sterilization
The removal of all microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses), including bacterial endospore of inanimate objects.

6. Disinfection
The removal of most (not all) of disease-causing microorganisms from inanimate objects. High-level disinfection is done by boiling or using chemical solutions. This action can eliminate all microorganisms except some bacterial endospore.


Nursing Assessment

1. Identity
Getting the patient identity data, including name, age, education, occupation, address, registration number, and medical diagnostics.

2. Health history
  • The main complaints: Complaints are most felt by the patient to seek help.
  • Health history now: What is being felt now.
  • Past medical history : Is the possibility of patients had never had this disease or have ever been.
  • Family health history: Covering hereditary diseases or non-communicable diseases.

3. The need for Bio-Psycho-Social-Spiritual.
Needs Bio-Psycho-Social-Spiritual include breathing, eating, drinking, elimination, motion and activity, rest - sleep, personal hygiene, temperature control, security and comfort, socialization and communication, achievement and productivity, knowledge, recreation and worship.

4. Physical Examination
a. General State
The general state include: general impression, awareness, posture, skin color, skin turgor, and personal hygiene.
b. Cardinal Symptoms
Cardinal symptoms include: temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and respiration.
c. Physical State
Includes examining the physical state of the head to the lower extremities.
  • Inspection: examine the skin, mucous membrane color, general appearance, adequacy systemic circulation, breathing pattern, chest wall movement.
  • Palpation: local tenderness, feeling a lump or axilla and breeast tissue, peripheral circulation, the peripheral pulse, skin temperature, color and capillary refill.
  • Percussion: knowing abnormal fluid, the air in the lungs, or the working diaphragm.
  • Auscultation: abnormal sounds, murmurs, as well as friction sound, or the sound of an extra breath.


Nursing Diagnoses

Risk for Infection

Definition: Having an increased risk of pathogenic organisms

Risk Factor:

Chronic Diseases
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Obesity
Knowledge is not enough to avoid pathogen exposure.
Defence inadequate primary body.
  • Impaired peristaltic
  • Damage to skin integrity (intravenous catheterization, an invasive procedure)
  • Changes in pH secretion
  • Decrease in work ciliary
  • Premature rupture of membranes
  • Smoking
  • Static body fluids
  • Tissue trauma network (ie., trauma, tissue destruction)
Inadequate secondary defenses
  • Decrease in hemoglobin
  • Immunosuppression (ie., Immunity acquired is inadequate, pharmaceutical agents including immunosuppressants, steroids, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulators)
  • Leukopenia
  • Suspension inflammatory response
Vaccination inadequate
Exposure to environmental pathogens which increased
  • outbreak
Invasive procedures
Malnutrition

Hyperthermia and Ineffective Airway Clearance related to Bronchitis

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Bronchitis:

1. Ineffective airway clearance related to increased production of secretions.

Goal: The client does not feel shortness of breath and no sputum.

Expected outcomes:
  • Maintain a patent airway with breath sounds clean or clear.
  • Shows behavior to improve airway clearance, for example: an effective cough.
Interventions:
  • Assess the respiratory function, breath sounds, the speed of the rhythm.
  • Assess a comfortable position for a client.
  • Suggest to cough effectively.
  • Collaboration: Provision mukolitik, Give the drug as an indication.
Rationale:
  • Assist the breathing pattern changes.
  • Breathing can facilitate the circulation in the body.
  • Cough teach effectively so patients independently.
  • To lower airway spasm.
  • Lowering the mucosal edema and smooth muscle spasm.

2. Hyperthermia related to the inflammatory process.

Goal: The client can reach the normal temperature.

Expected outcomes:
  • Normal body temperature (36.5 to 37.5 0C-0C)
Interventions:
  • Give a warm compress or cold pack in accordance with the client's approval.
  • Encourage clients to use clothing that is thin and absorbs perspiration.
  • Dressing damp or wet with sweat that much.
  • Give a thin blanket.
  • Collaboration: Give antipyretics.
Rationale:
  • Warm compresses help dilate the pores of the skin surface so as to accelerate heat dissipation.
  • Clothing that is thin, does not hinder the body's heat loss.
  • Clothes are damp / wet will cause inconvenience to the client.
  • Thick blanket that will hinder the body's heat loss.
  • Can help you lose body heat.

Acute and Chronic Bronchitis - Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms and Prevention


There are two types of bronchitis is acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis.

General conditions of acute bronchitis often develops from a cold or other respiratory infection. Acute bronchitis usually improves within a few days without leaving the effect, although you can continue to cough within weeks.

While chronic bronchitis is a more serious condition, this condition is irritation or inflammation constantly on bronchial pipes and is often caused by smoking. However if you have recurrent bronchitis condition, you may be experiencing chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Causes of of Acute and Chronic Bronchitis

Acute Bronchitis
Cold viruses often cause acute bronchitis. But you can also experience non-infectious bronchitis because of exposure to cigarette smoke and other pollutants such as dust.

Bronchitis can also occur when stomach acid rises into the esophagus, a condition known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). And workers exposed to dust or fumes can suffer bronchitis particular. Acute bronchitis generally disappear when no longer exposed to the irritant.


Chronic Bronchitis
Sometimes the inflammation and bronchial wall thickening pipe becomes permanent, a condition known as chronic bronchitis. You generally consider that you have chronic bronchitis if you cough every day lost after three months of the year in two consecutive years.

Unlike acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis persists and is a serious illness. Smoking is the biggest cause, but air pollution and dust or toxic gases in the environment or workplace also can contribute to this disease.


Risk Factors of Bronchitis

Factors that increase the risk of bronchitis, among others:
  • Smoking. Smoking was the source of various diseases. Therefore, stop smoking because it is very detrimental to health.
  • Weak immune system, may be due to recovering from illness or other conditions that make the immune system becomes weak.
  • The condition in which stomach acid up into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
  • Exposed to irritants, such as pollution, smoke or dust.


Symptoms of Acute and Chronic Bronchitis

Here are some of the symptoms of acute and chronic bronchitis need to know:
  • Cough.
  • The presence of mucus, either colorless, white or yellow-green.
  • Shortness of breath, worsening even while exerting little effort.
  • Tired.
  • Mild fever and chills.
  • Discomfort in the chest.

If you have acute bronchitis, you may have a cough that persists in a few weeks after recovering from bronchitis. However bronchitis symptoms can be confusing. You can not have mucus when you have bronchitis, and children often swallow the mucus so that parents may not know it. There can experience chronic bronchitis without acute bronchitis beforehand. As well as many smokers who have to clean up the mucus in the throat in the morning when waking from sleep, which, if it continues for more than three months, may have chronic bronchitis.

If you have chronic bronchitis, the inflammation in the long term lead pipe bronchila injured and produce too much mucus. Eventually the pipe wall will bronchial airways thicken and you may be injured. Signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis also can be:

Cough which worsened in the morning and in the humid weather.
Frequent respiratory infections (such as colds and flu) with a worsening cough up phlegm.

If you have chronic bronchitis, you may have a period in which signs and symptoms will worsen. At that time you can have a well-padded acute bronchitis due to bacterial or viral in addition to your chronic bronchitis.


Prevention of Bronchitis

Measures that can help reduce the risk of bronchitis and protect your lungs in general are:
  • Avoid smoking or exposure to cigarette smoke.
  • Avoid those who are sick colds or flu.
  • Wash your hands regularly.
  • Use a mask to reduce the risk of infection.

Common Causes that Make a Person Loss of Appetite for Days

Everyone must have experienced the condition appetite decreased or disappeared at a time. In medical terms, decreased appetite termed anorexia.

In many cases, loss of appetite caused by the disease, which means that the condition is just a symptom of a disease. Appetite will return to normal once the disease is gone. The condition was not too worried unless lasted for more than one or two days.

Other circumstances such as stress, sadness and anxiety-whichever common nowadays, - can also affect the normal appetite. It often occurs in adolescents and adults.

What happens to the body so that appetite decreased?

Basically, the appetite is an internal regulatory system that aims to meet the energy and nutritional needs of the body. The loss of your normal appetite would be a problem if the condition persists. It could be a symptom of a more serious disease. If these conditions persist, a person at risk of malnutrition or lack of nutrients.


Causes of lost appetite or decreased

Apart from the pain, appetite can also be reduced because of the effects of medical drugs that are being consumed by a person, or as well as weight loss diet program that is being executed.

Decreased appetite also almost always occur in the elderly, for no apparent reason could be found. However, factors such as sadness, depression, and excessive anxiety is a common cause of these conditions, and decrease the weight, especially in the elderly.

Cancer can also cause a decrease in appetite drastically. Cancers that make appetite disappeared, among others:
  • colon cancer
  • ovarian cancer
  • pancreatic cancer
  • stomach cancer
In addition, below are some other common causes that make a person lose appetite for days:
  • Infection, for example; pneumonia, hepatitis, HIV, influenza, or kidney infection called pyelonephritis.
  • Heart disease, kidney, and liver were serious. For example is chronic renal failure, cirrhosis, or congestive heart failure can cause loss of appetite.
  • Blockage in the stomach, known as intestinal obstruction.
  • Inflammation of the stomach or intestine, as occurs in patients with pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas, irritable bowel, or appendix.
  • Endocrine problems, such as diabetes mellitus, or a condition that causes low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism).
  • An autoimmune disorder, a condition in which a person's immune system attacks the body itself. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma.
  • Psychiatric conditions, such as depression, schizophrenia, or an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, a condition that causes decreased memory and other brain function decline.

What long-term effects of a loss of appetite?

Malnutrition, lack of food and nutrients your body needs, is a major serious problem of loss of appetite if it lasts for more than a few weeks. Other long-term effects associated with the cause. For example, diabetes can cause damage to various organs in the body, including the kidneys, eyes and nerves. Because of a lack of appetite, the body lacks essential nutrients to control diabetes.

Other effects related to the cause was cancer, which can cause death.


How to Overcome Decreased Appetite

The main thing is to find the cause of the loss of appetite. If caused by common ailments such as colds and fever, the appetite will improve after the disease is cured.

Consuming a multivitamin appetite enhancer may be necessary as a first step to restore the lost appetite. You can also try your favorite dish to cope with the declining appetite.

But if you can not detect a cause, and the condition lasts for several days, immediately consult a doctor for further diagnosis.

Tetanus - Causes, Symptoms, Complications, Diagnosis and Preventions

Tetanus

Tetanus is a serious infectious disease that attacks the nervous system and is characterized severe muscle contractions (seizures). This disease usually occurs as a result of stab wounds in the body of contaminated dust, manure, soil and animal or human feces.


Causes of Tetanus

The cause is the bacteria Clostridium tetani, a type of bacteria that can only grow and thrive in situations that are less oxygen environment (anaerobic).


Symptoms of Tetanus

Incubation period between injury until symptoms occur, generally lasts approximately 8 days (5-21 days), starting with stiffness in the jaw so that the mouth becomes locked (lockjaw) followed by:
  • Muscle stiffness in: the face, neck, chest, stomach, back up the spine arched (epistotonus), hands and legs
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Fever
  • Excessive sweating
  • High blood pressure
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Disturbance defecating and urinating


Neonatal Tetanus

Neonatal tetanus is the tetanus which attack newborns (neonates). This disease generally occurs due care less hygienic umbilical cord so contaminated by tetanus germs, and is characterized by fussy baby, stiff muscles, difficulty eating / drinking and death.


Complications of Tetanus

Severe tetanus can lead to complications such as:
  • A torn muscle
  • Vertebral fractures
  • Respiratory failure, until death due to respiratory muscle spasm
  • In infants will occur serious brain damage


Diagnosing Tetanus

Until now there is no specific laboratory tests to make sure someone is suffering from tetanus, so doctors rely on their history of injuries and the typical symptoms are found.

Examination can be done to support the diagnosis is testing a spatula that is touching the wall of the throat with a spatula (a kind of scoop), tetanus response is biting the spatula and close the mouth while a normal person would react nausea.


Preventing Tetanus

Several steps can be taken to prevent this disease are:
  • Hygienic wound care
  • Tetanus vaccine (tetanus toxoid), both primary immunization in infants and children and repeated vaccination every 10 years or in the event of a serious injury.

The Characteristics of Patients with Bulimia Nervosa You Should Know


Bulimia Nervosa is a disorder of eating, which is visible from the habit of overeating that occurs continuously. Bulimia is an eating disorder that often occurs in women. The disorder usually is a form of self-torture. The most frequently performed by more than 75% of people with bulimia nervosa is making herself vomit, sometimes called cleaning; fasting, and use of laxatives, enemas, diuretics, and excessive exercise are also a common feature.

Bulimia is a disease caused by the psychology of the patient, resulting in eating disorders. Bulimia is a condition where a patient overeating repeatedly and then back out. Issued food eaten can be through vomiting usually induced by laxatives, but it is also by removing it through urination by using diuretics.

Moreover, in addition to overeating, bulimia sufferers also tend to be very strict diet and excessive exercise. Characteristics of bulimia disease is certainly a habit of issuing food eaten very quickly, so it is very strange to ordinary people when back regurgitate after eating food.

Cleaning or vomit estimated as action to reduce hatred or guilt because they binge. Patients obsessed to rid themselves of the food, so food intake did not get absorbed by the body.

Cleaning action usually takes place immediately, but in some people with bulimia do cleaning at some period thereafter.

As with anorexia, bulimia is always associated with a control diet or weight loss. People with bulimia are usually paid much attention to weight, always feel less confident with the weight that tend to excessive dieting. The difference with patients with anorexia, people with bulimia have more stable body weight so that the disease is rarely known by the general public.

To detect the symptoms of bulimia in everyday life is hard. Process sometimes overeating is a common thing in society. Eating is a fun activity, can relieve stress or depression. In addition, each person also has a different appetite, so eat with the number of lots that sometimes is normal.

In addition, people with bulimia are not always thin. Could have had a normal weight or even overweight. But there are some signs that can be considered as a symptom of bulimia, namely:
  • Always to the bathroom after meals to throw up (of course done many times).
  • Excessive exercise.
  • There is a change such as swollen cheeks or jaw, broken blood vessels in the eye, damage to the tooth enamel so that it is obvious.
  • Too shackled with heavy affairs or body shape.

Ineffective Individual Coping related to Bulimia Nervosa


Nursing Care Plan for Bulimia Nervosa

Bulimia nervosa is a disorder in eating habits. Eating disorders are a psychiatric syndrome that is characterized by eating patterns associated with aberrant psychological characteristics associated with eating, body shape and weight. eating disorders occur due to several reasons in eating behavior, such as consumption of less healthy foods or eating too much.

Bulimia nervosa is a feast of food, followed by washing stomach or vomiting. Eating disorders usually occur together with other diseases such as depression, being part of a violent, and anxiety disorders. In this case, people who suffer from eating disorders can experience physical health complications further, including the problem of the working conditions of liver and kidney failure, which can lead to death. Many people with bulimia have a normal weight and seem to be no significant problems in life. Their regular people who look healthy, successful in his field, and tend ferfeksionis. However, behind it, have low self-esteem and often depressed.


Nursing Diagnosis : Ineffective individual coping

Goal: ineffectiveness of individual coping can be met.

Expected outcomes:
  • Identify methods that are not associated with less food in the face of stress or crisis.
  • Expressed feelings of guilt, anxiety, anger, or excessive need for control.
  • Shows a more satisfying interpersonal relationships.
  • Revealed more realistic body image.
  • Addressing an alternative method of dealing with stress or crisis.
  • Revealed an increase in self-esteem and confidence.

Interventions :
  • Assess client's eating habits.
  • Encourage clients to eat with other clients or their families, if tolerated.
  • Encourage clients to express their feelings (anxiety and guilt about eating).
  • Encourage clients to keep a diary to write down the type and amount of food eaten, identify feelings experienced before and after eating, especially about excessive eating behavior and depletion.
  • Discuss the client's preferred food and reduce anxiety.
  • Help clients explore ways to overcome the emotions (anger, anxiety, and frustration).
  • Give positive feedback to the client.
  • Teach client about the use of problem-solving process.
  • Exploration with the client about personal power.
  • Discuss with the client about the idea of receiving underweight "ideal".
  • Encourage clients to express their feelings, about the family members and those closest, role and relationship with them.

Rationale :
  • Preventing overeating behavior that includes eating secretly and swallow food, helps clients quickly and return to normal diet (three times daily).
  • Prevent secrecy about eating, though at first anxiety, the client may be too high to join the meal together.
  • Helps reduce feelings verbally can reduce anxiety and reducing the depletion of food behaviors.
  • Helping clients examine food intake and feelings they experienced.
  • Helping clients looking at using food to cope with feelings or make it comfortable.
  • Helping clients to separate emotional issues of food and eating behavior.
  • Increase efforts to clients in the face of anxiety, anger, and other emotions honestly and openly.
  • Helps clients improve self-esteem and confidence of clients.
  • Helping clients find strength.
  • Change the client's perception of ideal body weight may be unrealistic and unhealthy.
  • Helping clients identify, accept, and cope with their feelings in a proper way.

Pathophysiology and Early Symptoms of Dementia

Pathophysiology and Early Symptoms of Dementia
Dementia is not a specific disease. Dementia is a term used to describe a collection of symptoms that can be caused by a variety of disorders that affect the brain. A person with dementia have impaired intellectual functioning and causes disruption in daily activities or relationships with people around. People with dementia also lose the ability to solve problems, control emotions, and can even experience personality changes and behavioral problems such as irritability and hallucinations. A person diagnosed with dementia when two or more brain functions, such as memory and language skills, decreased significantly without loss of consciousness.

Pathophysiology of dementia usually begins gradually and increasingly worse, so that this situation did not at first realize. A decline in memory, the ability to remember the time and the ability to recognize people, places and objects. Patients have difficulty in finding and using the right words and the abstract thinking (eg in the use of numbers). Frequent changes in personality and behavior disorders.

Early symptoms usually are oblivious to what just happened but it could also begin as depression, fear, anxiety, decreased emotion, or other personality changes. There is a change in the pattern of speaking lightly so people use words more simple, using words that are not appropriate or not being able to find the right words. Inability to interpret the signs could pose difficulties in driving. In the end, patients are unable to perform their social functions.

Some people can hide their deficiencies well. They avoid complex activities (such as reading or working). Patients who do not succeed in changing his life may experience frustration because of inability to perform everyday tasks. Patients forget to perform the essential duties or wrong in doing the task.

Dementia is quite common in the elderly, afflicts about 16% of the age group above 65 years of age and 32-50% in the age group above 85 years. In about 10-20% of cases of dementia are reversible or treatable. The most frequent cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. Causes of Alzheimer's disease is unknown, but is thought to involve genetic factors, because the disease seems to be found in some families and are caused or influenced by several specific gene abnormalities. In Alzheimer's disease, some parts of the brain decline, resulting in cell damage and reduced response to a chemical that transmits signals in the brain. In the brain found abnormal tissue (called senile plaques and irregular nerve fibers) and abnormal proteins, which can be seen at autopsy. Lewy Body dementia closely resembles Alzheimer's disease, but have differences in microscopic changes that occur in the brain.

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