Nursing Care Plan - Risk for Violent Behavior

Violence can be defined as the use of physical force with the intent to injure another person or destroy property, while aggression is generally defined as angry or violent feelings or behavior. A person who is aggressive does not necessarily act out with violence.

Risk for Violent Behavior

General goals :
The client can control violent behavior

Specific goals :

1. The client can build a trusting relationship

Expected outcomes:
The client shows signs of believing in the nurse:
Bright face, smiling.
Want to get acquainted.
No eye contact.
Willing to share feelings.

Nursing Inerventions :
Develop a relationship of trust with:
Greet each interaction.
Introduce the names, nicknames nurses and nurses interact purposes.
Ask and call the name of the client's favorite.
Show empathy, honesty and keeping promises whenever interacting.
Ask the client's feelings and problems faced by the client.
Create a clear interaction contract.
Listen attentively to client's expression of feelings.

2. The client can identify the causes of violent behavior accomplishments
Expected outcomes:
The client tells the causes of violent behavior is doing; tells cause annoyance / upset either of themselves or their environment

Nursing Intervetions :
Help clients express feelings of anger:
Motivation client to tell the cause of resentment or annoyance
Listen without interrupting or give an assessment of each client's expression of feelings

3. The client can identify signs of violent behavior
Expected outcomes:
The client tells the signs of violent behavior occurs when:
Physical signs: red eyes, hands clenched, tense expression, and others.
Signs of emotional: feelings of anger, resentment, spoke harshly.
Social sign: hostile experienced during a violent behavior.

Nursing Interventions :
Help the client revealed signs of violent behavior that happened:
Motivation of the client communicating the physical condition (physical signs) when the violent behavior happened
Motivation of the client to share his emotional condition (signs of emotional) during a violent behavior
Motivation of the client to tell the condition of relationship with others (social signals) during a violent behavior

4. The client can identify the type of violent behavior has ever done
Expected outcomes:
The client explained:
The types of anger expression that had been done
Felt when violence

Nursing Interventions :
Discuss with the client violent behavior is usually done:
Motivation of the client to tell the kinds of violence that had been done.
Motivation of the client communicating the client's feelings after the incident of violence occurred
Discuss whether the acts of violence that can overcome the problems experienced.

5. The client can be identified as a result of violent behavior
Expected outcomes:
The client explained that due to the violence that is done
Self: wounds, shunned friends, etc.
Another person / family: wound, irritability, fear, etc.
Environment: goods or broken objects, etc.
The effectiveness of the methods used in solving problems

Nursing Interventions :
Discuss with the client due to the negative (losses) on how that is done:
Self
Others / family
Environment

6. The client can identify constructive ways of expressing anger
Expected outcomes:
Explaining healthy ways of expressing angry

Nursing Interventions :
Discuss with the client:
Does the client want to learn a new way of expressing anger that healthy
Explain the various alternative options to express angry besides the known violent behavior by the client.
Explain healthy ways to express angry:
Ø physical way: a deep breath, hit a pillow or mattress, sports.
Ø Verbal: revealed that he was upset to others.
Ø Social: assertiveness training with others.
Ø Spiritual: prayer, meditation, etc according their religious beliefs

7. The client can demonstrate how to control violent behavior
Expected outcomes:
The client demonstrates how to control violent behavior:
Physical: take a deep breath, hit the pillow / mattress
Verbal: express the feeling irritated / annoyed at others without hurting
Spiritual: prayer, meditation accordance religion

Nursing Interventions :
Discuss ways that may be selected and encourage clients choose the possible ways to express anger.
Train showcase selected clients: demonstrate how to implement the chosen method, explain the benefits of this way, encourage clients imitating the demonstration that has been done, give reinforcement to the client, correct way is still not perfect.
Encourage clients to use tools already trained when angry / annoyed

8. The client has a family support to control violent behavior
Expected outcomes:
Explain how to care for a client with violent behavior
Expressed pleasure in caring for the client

Nursing Interventions :
Discuss the importance of the role of the family as a supporter of the client to address violent behavior.
Discuss potential families to help the client resolve violent behavior
Explain the meaning, causes, consequences and how to care for the clients of violent behavior that can be carried out by the family.
Demonstrate how to care for the clients (to handle violent behavior)
Give the family the opportunity to demonstrate again.
Give praise to the family after the demonstration

9. The client uses the appropriate therapy program that has been set
Expected outcomes:
The client explained:
Benefits of taking medication
Losses do not take medication
Medicine name
The shape and color of drugs
The dose given
time usage
How to use
Effects felt

Nursing Interventions:
Explain the benefits of using the medication regularly and damages if the client does not use medication
Explain to the client: the type (name, color and form of the drug), the dose is right for the client, time of use, how to use, the effect will be felt by the client.
Advise the client: Ask for and use of medication on time, Report to the nurse / physician if the client is experiencing unusual effects, Give praise to discipline the client using the drug, Ask the family feeling after trying ways trained.

Types of Conflict and Conflict Management

Conflict is basically divided into two parts: the internal conflict and external conflict. Internal conflicts occur at the individual, while the external conflict is a conflict that arises between two or more people and is known for interpersonal conflict, for example; conflicts within the couple.

Conflicts according Winardi (1994) is divided into four, including:

a. Conflict within the individual's own
Every conflict can be devastating for the person or people who are related, among conflicts are more worried about potentially be called conflicts involving individual itself. Conflicts can arise due to excessive load role (role overlads) and the inability of the relevant role (role person- incompatibilities) in this case the husband and wife.

b. Interpersonal conflicts
Interpersonal conflicts between one or more individuals. For example the marital relationship.

c. Conflicts between groups
Another conflict situations arise in the organization, as a network of groups that are intertwined.

d. Conflicts between organizations
This conflict between the organizations.

This study focused on interpersonal conflicts or conflicts from individual to individual (interpersonal conflict) is the conflict in the marriage happens to husband and wife.


According to Thomas and Kilmann (in Wirawan, 2010) conflict is an objective condition mismatch between the values or goals, such as the behavior that intentionally disrupt efforts to achieve goals, and emotionally-containing atmosphere of hostility. They developed a taxonomy of conflict management styles based on two dimensions: the first collaboration is an attempt to satisfy others when dealing with conflict. Both assertiveness is an attempt of people to satisfy themselves when dealing with conflict. Based on these two dimensions Thomas and Kilmann offers five types of conflict management styles. The five types of conflict management styles are as follows:

1. Competition. Conflict management styles with high assertiveness level and low level of cooperation. This style is a style oriented power, where someone would use the power it has to win the conflict with persecuted his opponents.

2. Collaborating. Conflict management styles with a high degree of assertiveness and cooperation. The goal is to find an alternative, a common ground, and fully meet the expectations of both parties involved in the conflict.

3. compromising. Central conflict management style, in which the level of assertiveness and cooperation being. By using the strategy of giving and taking (give and take), both parties to the conflict seek alternative midpoint satisfying as they desire.

4. Avoiding. Conflict management styles with the same level of assertiveness and low employment. In the style of management of this conflict, both sides are trying to avoid conflict. According to Thomas and Kilmann dodge shapes could include: (a) keep away from the subject matter; (B) the subject matter of delay until the right time; or (c) withdrawing from the conflict which threaten and harm.

5. Accomodating. Conflict management styles with a low level of assertiveness and a high level of cooperation. A neglect its own interests and seek to satisfy the interests of the opponent.

Neonatal Nurse Salary Range (powerpoint)

Neonatal nursing is a subspecialty of nursing care for newborn infants up to 28 days after birth. The term neonatal comes from neo, "new", and natal, "pertaining to birth or origin". Neonatal nursing requires a high degree of skill, dedication and emotional strength as the nurses care for newborn infants with a range of problems, varying between prematurity, birth defects, infection, cardiac malformations and surgical problems. Neonatal nurses are a vital part of the neonatal care team and are required to know basic newborn resuscitation, be able to control the newborn's temperature and know how to initiate cardiopulmonary and pulse oximetry monitoring. (wikipedia)


Guillain-Barré Syndrome - Definition, Etiology and Classification

Guillain-Barre syndrome is a cause of paralysis is fairly common in young adults. Guillain-Barre syndrome is often caused concerns for patients and their families because it occurs in the productive age, especially in some circumstances can cause death, although it generally has a good prognosis.

Some names are called by some experts for this disease, namely idiopathic polyneuritis, acute febrile polyneuritis, acute infectious polyneuritis, acute postinfectious polyneuritis, Acute inflammatory demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy, Landry's ascending paralysis and Landry-Guillain-Barré Syndrome.


Definition

Guillain-Barre syndrome or acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is an acute inflammation that causes nerve cell damage without an obvious cause. This syndrome was found in 1916 by Georges Guillain, Jean-Alexandre Barré and Strohl André. They discovered the syndrome in two soldiers who suffered from abnormality increased production of cerebrospinal fluid protein. Diagnosis of Guillain-Barre syndrome can be done by analyzing cerebrospinal fluid and electrodiagnostic. Indications of infection is the increase in white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid. Whereas when using electrodiagnostic, can through conduction studies nerve cells. (Nugrahanti, 2010)

Parry said that, Guillain-Barre syndrome is a polyneuropathy that is ascending and acute that often occurs after 1 to 3 weeks after acute infection. According to Bosch, Guillain-Barre syndrome is a clinical syndrome characterized by flaccid paralysis that occurs acutely associated with the autoimmune process in which the target is peripheral nerves, nerve roots and cranial nerves.


Etiology

Guillain-Barre syndrome is still not known with certainty the cause and is still a matter of debate. Some state / illness that precedes and may be an association with the occurrence of Guillain-Barre syndrome, among others:
  • Infection
  • Vaccination
  • Surgery
  • Systemic disease: malignancy, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroiditis, Addison's disease
  • Pregnancy or during childbirth

Guillain-Barre syndrome is often associated with acute non-specific infections. The incidence of cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with these infections approximately between 56% - 80%, which is 1 to 4 weeks before neurological symptoms arise, such as upper respiratory infections or gastrointestinal infections.

Previously the syndrome is thought to be caused by a viral infection, but recently revealed that in fact the virus is not the cause. Scientists have theorized today is an abnormality Immunobiology, either primary immune response and immune-mediated process.

In general, this syndrome is often preceded by influenza infection or upper respiratory tract or gastrointestinal tract. The cause of viral infections in general, of the herpes group. This syndrome can also be preceded by vaccination, bacterial infections, endocrine disorders, surgery, anesthesia, and so on.


Classification

Some variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome can be classified as follows:
  • Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Subacute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
  • Acute of motor axonal neuropathy
  • Acute of motor and sensory axonal neuropathy
  • Fisher's syndrome
  • Acute pandysautonomia

Risk for Infection - Nursing Assessment and Nursing Diagnosis


Infection is an invasion of the body by pathogens or microorganisms capable of causing illness (Potter and Perry, 2005).

Some of the factors that trigger the risk of infection in patients by Potter and Perry (2005) are:

1) Agent
The agent causing the infection, the microorganism can enter because the agent itself or because the toxins are released.

2) Host
The hosts were infected, so even if there is an agent, if no one can be charged, there is no infection. Hosts are usually people or animals in accordance with the needs of the agent to survive or breed.

3) Environment
Environment, the environment around the agent and the host, such as temperature, humidity, sunlight, oxygen and so on. There are certain agents that can only survive or infect certain environmental conditions as well.


Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms are common in infections (Smeltzer, 2002) as follows:



1. Rubor
Rubor or redness is first seen in areas that become inflamed. When inflammatory reactions arise, dilation of the arterioles that supply blood to areas of inflammation. So that more blood flows to local microcirculation and capillary stretch quickly filled with blood. This condition is called hyperemia or congestion, causing local red color because of acute inflammation.

2. Calor
Calor occur simultaneously with redness of acute inflammatory reactions. Calor is also caused by increased blood circulation. Because blood has a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius is channeled to the body surface inflamed to the area more than normal.

3. Dolor
Changes in local pH or local concentration of certain ions can stimulate nerve endings. Spending substances such as histamine or other bioactive can stimulate nerves. The pain is caused also by the pressure was rising due to swelling of inflamed tissue.

4. Tumor
Swelling partly due to hyperemia and mostly caused by the delivery of fluid and cells from the blood circulation into the interstitial tissues.

5. Functio Laesa
Functio laesa is a loss of function or a disturbance of function.


Diagnostic

Laboratory tests are directly related to the infection include a complete blood count that includes: hemoglobin, leukocytes, hematocrit, erythrocytes, platelets, MCH, MCHV, basophils, eosinophils, stem segments, lymphocytes, and monocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), random blood glucose, and albumin.


Medical Management

1. Aseptic
Actions taken in health care. This term is used to describe all the work done to prevent the entry of microorganisms into the body that are likely to lead to infection. The end goal is to reduce or eliminate the number of microorganisms, both on the surface of animate objects and inanimate objects so that medical equipment can be safely used.

2. Antiseptic
Efforts to prevent infection by killing or inhibiting the growth of microorganisms on the skin and other body tissues.

3. Decontamination
Actions taken so that an inanimate object can be handled safely by health workers, particularly medical clearance officer before washing done. An example is the examination table, medical equipment and gloves contaminated with blood or body fluids when actions are performed.

4. Washing
The removal of all blood, body fluids, or any foreign objects such as dust and dirt.

5. Sterilization
The removal of all microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses), including bacterial endospore of inanimate objects.

6. Disinfection
The removal of most (not all) of disease-causing microorganisms from inanimate objects. High-level disinfection is done by boiling or using chemical solutions. This action can eliminate all microorganisms except some bacterial endospore.


Nursing Assessment

1. Identity
Getting the patient identity data, including name, age, education, occupation, address, registration number, and medical diagnostics.

2. Health history
  • The main complaints: Complaints are most felt by the patient to seek help.
  • Health history now: What is being felt now.
  • Past medical history : Is the possibility of patients had never had this disease or have ever been.
  • Family health history: Covering hereditary diseases or non-communicable diseases.

3. The need for Bio-Psycho-Social-Spiritual.
Needs Bio-Psycho-Social-Spiritual include breathing, eating, drinking, elimination, motion and activity, rest - sleep, personal hygiene, temperature control, security and comfort, socialization and communication, achievement and productivity, knowledge, recreation and worship.

4. Physical Examination
a. General State
The general state include: general impression, awareness, posture, skin color, skin turgor, and personal hygiene.
b. Cardinal Symptoms
Cardinal symptoms include: temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and respiration.
c. Physical State
Includes examining the physical state of the head to the lower extremities.
  • Inspection: examine the skin, mucous membrane color, general appearance, adequacy systemic circulation, breathing pattern, chest wall movement.
  • Palpation: local tenderness, feeling a lump or axilla and breeast tissue, peripheral circulation, the peripheral pulse, skin temperature, color and capillary refill.
  • Percussion: knowing abnormal fluid, the air in the lungs, or the working diaphragm.
  • Auscultation: abnormal sounds, murmurs, as well as friction sound, or the sound of an extra breath.


Nursing Diagnoses

Risk for Infection

Definition: Having an increased risk of pathogenic organisms

Risk Factor:

Chronic Diseases
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Obesity
Knowledge is not enough to avoid pathogen exposure.
Defence inadequate primary body.
  • Impaired peristaltic
  • Damage to skin integrity (intravenous catheterization, an invasive procedure)
  • Changes in pH secretion
  • Decrease in work ciliary
  • Premature rupture of membranes
  • Smoking
  • Static body fluids
  • Tissue trauma network (ie., trauma, tissue destruction)
Inadequate secondary defenses
  • Decrease in hemoglobin
  • Immunosuppression (ie., Immunity acquired is inadequate, pharmaceutical agents including immunosuppressants, steroids, monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulators)
  • Leukopenia
  • Suspension inflammatory response
Vaccination inadequate
Exposure to environmental pathogens which increased
  • outbreak
Invasive procedures
Malnutrition

Hyperthermia and Ineffective Airway Clearance related to Bronchitis

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Bronchitis:

1. Ineffective airway clearance related to increased production of secretions.

Goal: The client does not feel shortness of breath and no sputum.

Expected outcomes:
  • Maintain a patent airway with breath sounds clean or clear.
  • Shows behavior to improve airway clearance, for example: an effective cough.
Interventions:
  • Assess the respiratory function, breath sounds, the speed of the rhythm.
  • Assess a comfortable position for a client.
  • Suggest to cough effectively.
  • Collaboration: Provision mukolitik, Give the drug as an indication.
Rationale:
  • Assist the breathing pattern changes.
  • Breathing can facilitate the circulation in the body.
  • Cough teach effectively so patients independently.
  • To lower airway spasm.
  • Lowering the mucosal edema and smooth muscle spasm.

2. Hyperthermia related to the inflammatory process.

Goal: The client can reach the normal temperature.

Expected outcomes:
  • Normal body temperature (36.5 to 37.5 0C-0C)
Interventions:
  • Give a warm compress or cold pack in accordance with the client's approval.
  • Encourage clients to use clothing that is thin and absorbs perspiration.
  • Dressing damp or wet with sweat that much.
  • Give a thin blanket.
  • Collaboration: Give antipyretics.
Rationale:
  • Warm compresses help dilate the pores of the skin surface so as to accelerate heat dissipation.
  • Clothing that is thin, does not hinder the body's heat loss.
  • Clothes are damp / wet will cause inconvenience to the client.
  • Thick blanket that will hinder the body's heat loss.
  • Can help you lose body heat.

Acute and Chronic Bronchitis - Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms and Prevention


There are two types of bronchitis is acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis.

General conditions of acute bronchitis often develops from a cold or other respiratory infection. Acute bronchitis usually improves within a few days without leaving the effect, although you can continue to cough within weeks.

While chronic bronchitis is a more serious condition, this condition is irritation or inflammation constantly on bronchial pipes and is often caused by smoking. However if you have recurrent bronchitis condition, you may be experiencing chronic bronchitis. Chronic bronchitis is one of the conditions associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Causes of of Acute and Chronic Bronchitis

Acute Bronchitis
Cold viruses often cause acute bronchitis. But you can also experience non-infectious bronchitis because of exposure to cigarette smoke and other pollutants such as dust.

Bronchitis can also occur when stomach acid rises into the esophagus, a condition known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). And workers exposed to dust or fumes can suffer bronchitis particular. Acute bronchitis generally disappear when no longer exposed to the irritant.


Chronic Bronchitis
Sometimes the inflammation and bronchial wall thickening pipe becomes permanent, a condition known as chronic bronchitis. You generally consider that you have chronic bronchitis if you cough every day lost after three months of the year in two consecutive years.

Unlike acute bronchitis, chronic bronchitis persists and is a serious illness. Smoking is the biggest cause, but air pollution and dust or toxic gases in the environment or workplace also can contribute to this disease.


Risk Factors of Bronchitis

Factors that increase the risk of bronchitis, among others:
  • Smoking. Smoking was the source of various diseases. Therefore, stop smoking because it is very detrimental to health.
  • Weak immune system, may be due to recovering from illness or other conditions that make the immune system becomes weak.
  • The condition in which stomach acid up into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
  • Exposed to irritants, such as pollution, smoke or dust.


Symptoms of Acute and Chronic Bronchitis

Here are some of the symptoms of acute and chronic bronchitis need to know:
  • Cough.
  • The presence of mucus, either colorless, white or yellow-green.
  • Shortness of breath, worsening even while exerting little effort.
  • Tired.
  • Mild fever and chills.
  • Discomfort in the chest.

If you have acute bronchitis, you may have a cough that persists in a few weeks after recovering from bronchitis. However bronchitis symptoms can be confusing. You can not have mucus when you have bronchitis, and children often swallow the mucus so that parents may not know it. There can experience chronic bronchitis without acute bronchitis beforehand. As well as many smokers who have to clean up the mucus in the throat in the morning when waking from sleep, which, if it continues for more than three months, may have chronic bronchitis.

If you have chronic bronchitis, the inflammation in the long term lead pipe bronchila injured and produce too much mucus. Eventually the pipe wall will bronchial airways thicken and you may be injured. Signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis also can be:

Cough which worsened in the morning and in the humid weather.
Frequent respiratory infections (such as colds and flu) with a worsening cough up phlegm.

If you have chronic bronchitis, you may have a period in which signs and symptoms will worsen. At that time you can have a well-padded acute bronchitis due to bacterial or viral in addition to your chronic bronchitis.


Prevention of Bronchitis

Measures that can help reduce the risk of bronchitis and protect your lungs in general are:
  • Avoid smoking or exposure to cigarette smoke.
  • Avoid those who are sick colds or flu.
  • Wash your hands regularly.
  • Use a mask to reduce the risk of infection.

Common Causes that Make a Person Loss of Appetite for Days

Everyone must have experienced the condition appetite decreased or disappeared at a time. In medical terms, decreased appetite termed anorexia.

In many cases, loss of appetite caused by the disease, which means that the condition is just a symptom of a disease. Appetite will return to normal once the disease is gone. The condition was not too worried unless lasted for more than one or two days.

Other circumstances such as stress, sadness and anxiety-whichever common nowadays, - can also affect the normal appetite. It often occurs in adolescents and adults.

What happens to the body so that appetite decreased?

Basically, the appetite is an internal regulatory system that aims to meet the energy and nutritional needs of the body. The loss of your normal appetite would be a problem if the condition persists. It could be a symptom of a more serious disease. If these conditions persist, a person at risk of malnutrition or lack of nutrients.


Causes of lost appetite or decreased

Apart from the pain, appetite can also be reduced because of the effects of medical drugs that are being consumed by a person, or as well as weight loss diet program that is being executed.

Decreased appetite also almost always occur in the elderly, for no apparent reason could be found. However, factors such as sadness, depression, and excessive anxiety is a common cause of these conditions, and decrease the weight, especially in the elderly.

Cancer can also cause a decrease in appetite drastically. Cancers that make appetite disappeared, among others:
  • colon cancer
  • ovarian cancer
  • pancreatic cancer
  • stomach cancer
In addition, below are some other common causes that make a person lose appetite for days:
  • Infection, for example; pneumonia, hepatitis, HIV, influenza, or kidney infection called pyelonephritis.
  • Heart disease, kidney, and liver were serious. For example is chronic renal failure, cirrhosis, or congestive heart failure can cause loss of appetite.
  • Blockage in the stomach, known as intestinal obstruction.
  • Inflammation of the stomach or intestine, as occurs in patients with pancreatitis, inflammation of the pancreas, irritable bowel, or appendix.
  • Endocrine problems, such as diabetes mellitus, or a condition that causes low thyroid hormone levels (hypothyroidism).
  • An autoimmune disorder, a condition in which a person's immune system attacks the body itself. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis and scleroderma.
  • Psychiatric conditions, such as depression, schizophrenia, or an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, a condition that causes decreased memory and other brain function decline.

What long-term effects of a loss of appetite?

Malnutrition, lack of food and nutrients your body needs, is a major serious problem of loss of appetite if it lasts for more than a few weeks. Other long-term effects associated with the cause. For example, diabetes can cause damage to various organs in the body, including the kidneys, eyes and nerves. Because of a lack of appetite, the body lacks essential nutrients to control diabetes.

Other effects related to the cause was cancer, which can cause death.


How to Overcome Decreased Appetite

The main thing is to find the cause of the loss of appetite. If caused by common ailments such as colds and fever, the appetite will improve after the disease is cured.

Consuming a multivitamin appetite enhancer may be necessary as a first step to restore the lost appetite. You can also try your favorite dish to cope with the declining appetite.

But if you can not detect a cause, and the condition lasts for several days, immediately consult a doctor for further diagnosis.

Tetanus - Causes, Symptoms, Complications, Diagnosis and Preventions

Tetanus

Tetanus is a serious infectious disease that attacks the nervous system and is characterized severe muscle contractions (seizures). This disease usually occurs as a result of stab wounds in the body of contaminated dust, manure, soil and animal or human feces.


Causes of Tetanus

The cause is the bacteria Clostridium tetani, a type of bacteria that can only grow and thrive in situations that are less oxygen environment (anaerobic).


Symptoms of Tetanus

Incubation period between injury until symptoms occur, generally lasts approximately 8 days (5-21 days), starting with stiffness in the jaw so that the mouth becomes locked (lockjaw) followed by:
  • Muscle stiffness in: the face, neck, chest, stomach, back up the spine arched (epistotonus), hands and legs
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Fever
  • Excessive sweating
  • High blood pressure
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Disturbance defecating and urinating


Neonatal Tetanus

Neonatal tetanus is the tetanus which attack newborns (neonates). This disease generally occurs due care less hygienic umbilical cord so contaminated by tetanus germs, and is characterized by fussy baby, stiff muscles, difficulty eating / drinking and death.


Complications of Tetanus

Severe tetanus can lead to complications such as:
  • A torn muscle
  • Vertebral fractures
  • Respiratory failure, until death due to respiratory muscle spasm
  • In infants will occur serious brain damage


Diagnosing Tetanus

Until now there is no specific laboratory tests to make sure someone is suffering from tetanus, so doctors rely on their history of injuries and the typical symptoms are found.

Examination can be done to support the diagnosis is testing a spatula that is touching the wall of the throat with a spatula (a kind of scoop), tetanus response is biting the spatula and close the mouth while a normal person would react nausea.


Preventing Tetanus

Several steps can be taken to prevent this disease are:
  • Hygienic wound care
  • Tetanus vaccine (tetanus toxoid), both primary immunization in infants and children and repeated vaccination every 10 years or in the event of a serious injury.

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