Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic illness characterized by the body’s inability to produce insulin due to the autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas. It is most common in juveniles, but it can also develop in adults in their late 30s and early 40s.
The classic symptoms of type 1 diabetes are:
- unexplained weight loss.
- blurred vision.
Type 2 diabetes consists of an array of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from the combination of resistance to insulin action, inadequate insulin secretion, and excessive or inappropriate glucagon secretion.
Many patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations include the following:
- Classic symptoms: Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, and weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Lower-extremity paresthesias
- Yeast infections (eg, balanitis in men)
Nursing Care Plan for Diabetes Mellitus
Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Diabetes Mellitus
Powerlessness related to long-term disease / progressive untreatable.
Goal: The feeling of powerlessness is reduced during treatment.
- acknowledge feelings of hopelessness,
- identify healthy ways to deal with feelings,
- assist in planning their own care.
a) Instruct patient / family to express feelings about hospitalization and illness as a whole.
b) Provide opportunities for families to express concern and discuss how they can help the patient fully.
c) Determine goals / expectations of the patient / family.
d) Determine whether there are changes related to people nearby.
e) Provide support to patients to participate in self-care.
Ineffective Therapeutic Regimen Management related to insufficiency of knowledge about diabetes.
Goal: Client following diabetes education.
- Clients can mention names, dosage, mode of action and time to drink regularly.
a) Explain to the client and family about the etiology and treatment of diabetes.
b) Encourage clients to frequently monitor blood sugar levels.
c) Explain the importance of adhering to a diet and exercise program is recommended.
d) Teach the client to use insulin (dose, timing, injection site).
e) Teach the importance of achieving and maintaining a normal body weight.